Superoxide Dismutase Enzymes are present in practically all cells and in extracellular fluids. The SODs are considered free radical scavengers, preventing oxidative damage and thus are considered important to delay the aging process. Genetic polymorphism in SOD enzymes and their altered expressions and activities are associated with oxidative DNA damage and an increased cancer risk. (Khan MA, Tania M, Zhang D, Chen H. Antioxidant enzymes and cancer. Chin J Cancer Res 22(2);87-92. 2010)
SOD enzymes contain metal cofactors which can be copper, zinc, manganese or iron. Deficiency in any of these metals will lower certain SOD levels and function.
SOD-Gene defects have been associated with diseases such as Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) (Banzi et al. SOD1 and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: mutation and oligomerization. PLoS 3/-/2008. NCBI; Furukawa Y et al. Complete loss of post-translational modifications triggers fibrillar aggregation of SOD1 in familial form of ALS. J. Biol. Chem. 283/35/2008)